Calculating Srebrenica Dead: 8262 v. 8372 Killed in Genocide

Author: Daniel Toljaga

Former Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadzic is charged with two counts of Genocide by the International Criminal Tribunal at the Hague.

The first count of genocide covers the period from 31 March to 31 December 1992 in the territory of ten Bosnian municipalities: “Bratunac, Brcko, Foca, Kljuc, Kotor Varos, Prijedor, Sanski Most, Visegrad, Vlasenica and Zvornik.” The second count of genocide refers to the period from July to November 1995 and the “killing over Read more of this post

Haške Presude Sadrže Nepotpunu Pozadinu o Srebrenici

Međunarodni krivični sud u Haagu je svoju pozornost usmjerio gotovo isključivo na slučaj pada Srebrenice i sistematsko strijeljanje hiljade ratnih zarobljenika. Ali je ignorisao srpske ratne zločine u Srebrenici koji su prethodili padu ‘zaštićene’ enklave Ujedinjenih nacija… Gdje druge presude o Srebrenici ne uspjevaju da objasne šta je prethodilo padu Srebrenice, Orićeva presuda uspjeva da pruži širu perspektivu događaja koji su doveli do masakra u Srebrenici.

Autor: Daniel Toljaga
| ENGLISH

Nijedan ozbiljan istraživač nikada neće biti u mogućnosti da uz pomoć Haških presuda pronađe sveobuhvatne informacije o ozbiljnim kršenjima ljudskih prava koje su prethodile prvom genocidu na europskom tlu od Drugoga svjetskog rata. Svjetska pozornost se tada, a i kasnije, usredotočila na masakr u Srebrenici 1995. godine – posljednji čin dugoročne tragedije koju je sprovodila Vojske Republike Srpske pod direkcijom vodstva bosanskih Srba koji su uživali vojnu, financijsku i logističku pomoć svoje braće u Srbiji.

Opsada Srebrenice je trajala više od tri godine (od maja 1992 do jula 1995 godine) nakon čega su snage generala Mladića i dobrovoljaca iz Srbije lovile i sistematski usmrtile, na organiziran i planski način, oko 8.000 bošnjačkih muškaraca i dječaka. Masovna ubistva, podstaknuta islamofobijom, bila su popraćena terorom, poniženjima, silovanja, mučenjima i etničkim čišćenjem. Read more of this post

Hague Judgments Provide Incomplete Background on Srebrenica

The International Criminal Tribunal focused its attention almost entirely on the case of the fall of Srebrenica and the systematic execution of thousands prisoners of war. But it ignored the Serb war crimes at Srebrenica that preceded the fall of this ‘UN-protected’ enclave…. Where other Srebrenica-related judgments fail to provide a broader perspective of events leading to the Srebrenica massacre, Orić’s judgment succeeds…

Author: Daniel Toljaga
| BOSANSKI

No serious researcher will ever be able to find all-encompassing information, in the Srebrenica-related judgments, about the serious human rights violations that preceded the first genocide on European soil since the Second World War. The world’s attention, then and later, concentrated on the 1995 Srebrenica massacre – the last act of a long-drawn out tragedy written by the Army of the Republika Srpska under direction of the Bosnian Serb leadership, with military, financial and logistical help from their brethren in Serbia.

The siege of Srebrenica itself lasted for more than three years (May 1992 – July 1995) before General Mladić’s forces and volunteers from Serbia hunted down and systematically killed, in an organized and planned manner, around 8,000 Bosniak men and boys. The killings, fueled by Islamophobia, were accompanied by terror, humiliation, rape, torture, and ethnic cleansing. Read more of this post

20-ta Godišnjica od Početka Rata u Bosni i Hercegovini

GENOCID U BOSNI: Masakr u Bijeljini, 31. marta 1992 (Fotoreporter: Ron Haviv, Blood and Honey: A Balkan War Journal). Opis ove fotografije (www.ronhaviv.com) glasi: Arkanoi tigrovi ubijaju i šutiraju civile bosanskih muslimana tijekom prve bitke za Bosnu u Bijelini 31. marta 1992. Srpske paravojne jedinice su bile odgovorne za ubijanje na hiljade ljudi tijekom rata u Bosni, a kasnije je Arkan bio optužen za ratne zločine. (Slika korištena uz dopuštenje Rona Haviva)

GENOCID U BOSNI: Masakr u Bijeljini, 31. marta 1992 (Fotoreporter: Ron Haviv, Blood and Honey: A Balkan War Journal). Opis ove fotografije (www.ronhaviv.com) glasi: Arkanoi tigrovi ubijaju i šutiraju civile bosanskih muslimana tijekom prve bitke za Bosnu u Bijelini 31. marta 1992. Srpske paravojne jedinice su bile odgovorne za ubijanje na hiljade ljudi tijekom rata u Bosni, a kasnije je Arkan bio optužen za ratne zločine. (Slika korištena uz dopuštenje Rona Haviva)

Autor: Daniel Toljaga
| ENGLISH |

Danas je 20 godina od početka rata koji je pokrenuo val neopisive brutalnosti protiv ciljane grupe – etničkog bošnjačkog stanovništva u Bosni i Hercegovini. Hiljade preživjelih i dalje nose ožiljke trauma koje su započele na današnji dan, prije dvadeset godina.

Neopisiva brutalnost, popraćena ne samo hladnim ‘brojevima mrtvih’, bila je karakterizirana i: Read more of this post

20 Years Since the Start of the Bosnian War (31 March 2012)

BOSNIAN GENOCIDE: Bijeljina Massacre, 31 March 1992 (Credit: Ron Haviv, Blood and Honey: A Balkan War Journal). Caption for this photograph (www.ronhaviv.com) reads: Arkan's Tigers kill and kick Bosnian Muslim civilians during the first battle for Bosnia in Bijeljina, Bosnia, March 31, 1992. The Serbian paramilitary unit was responsible for killing thousands of people during the Bosnian war, and Arkan was later indicted for war crimes. (Photograph used with Ron Haviv's permission)

BOSNIAN GENOCIDE: Bijeljina Massacre, 31 March 1992 (Credit: Ron Haviv, Blood and Honey: A Balkan War Journal). Caption for this photograph (www.ronhaviv.com) reads: Arkan’s Tigers kill and kick Bosnian Muslim civilians during the first battle for Bosnia in Bijeljina, Bosnia, March 31, 1992. The Serbian paramilitary unit was responsible for killing thousands of people during the Bosnian war, and Arkan was later indicted for war crimes. (Photograph used with Ron Haviv’s permission)


Author: Daniel Toljaga
| BOSANSKI |

It is 20 years since the beginning of the war that unleashed a wave of unspeakable brutality against the targeted group – the ethnic Bosniak population of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Thousands of survivors continue to bear the scars of trauma that started on this day, twenty years ago.

The unspeakable brutality, accompanied by more than just cold ‘numbers of dead’, was characterized by: Read more of this post

Srebrenica: Srpsko Siroče na Majčinom Grobu

[ da uvećate sliku, klinite ovdje ]

Autor: Daniel Toljaga

Ni Joseph Goebbels ne bi ostao ravnodušan silnim izmšljotinama i propagandnim aktivnostima kojima je beogradsko i paljansko rukovodstvo trovalo Srbe za vrijeme stvaranja Republike Srpske. Počevši od izmišljotina da je Naser Orić pobio 3.500 Srba oko Srebrenice, da su Bošnjaci u opkoljenom Sarajevu hranili lavove u Zoološkom vrtu srpskom djecom, da su Bošnjaci sami sebe granatirali u Sarajevu kako bi optužili Srbe, pa sve do zloupotrebe nauke i umjetnosti i negiranja sistematske kampanje etničkog čišćenja, ova vrsta prljave ratne propagande podsticala je široke slojeve srpskog stanovništva da putem ksenofobije, bošnjakofobije, islamofobije i drugih oblika netrpeljivosti, predrasuda i morbidne mržnje, opravdavaju i učestvuju u teškim ratnim zločinima koji su kulminirali genocidom.

“Genetički Deformiran Materijal”

Mada srpski narod nije ni bolji ni lošiji od ijednog drugog, utjecaj radikalne ultra-nacionalističke propagande u srbijanskim medijima, potom islamofobična učenja Srpske pravoslavne crkve, te neobjektivna i emocionalno nastrojena interpretacija istorije, dovela je do toga da veliki broj Srba smatraju nesrbe koji žive u njihovom okruženju inferiornim. Utjecajem mitova i predrasuda, većina Srba i danas gledaju na Bošnjake kao ‘poturčene Srbe’. Rezultat ovakvog razmišljanja je indoktrinacija djece u srpskim školama putem pseudo-historijskih argumenata o srpskoj etničkoj ‘superiornosti’ (npr . da je Bosna istorijski ‘srpska zemlja’ i da su Srbi katastarski posjedovali 64 posto BiH prije rata), vječnoj ‘nevinosti’ (Srbi su u svim periodima istorije bili pravednici i žrtve, ali nikada zločinci) i ‘rasnoj’ čistoći (muslimanski živalj smatraju doseljenicima ili izdajicama koje su ostavile časni krst za komad pogače). Naučni mozgovi Republike Srpske, poput nekadašnje profesorice biologije Biljane Plavšić, uvjeravali su srpsku javnost da Bošnjaci nisu ljudska bića, nego genetski defekti. Tako Prof. Plavšić objašnjava: Read more of this post

Letter to the ICTY: Factual Errors on Hague Tribunal’s Interactive Map of Cases

To the ICTY Press Office
To the Office of the Prosecutor

An oath is written in different languages and left on the witness chair in the courtroom at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) during its open day for public in Hague.

An oath is written in different languages and left on the witness chair in the courtroom at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) during its open day for public in Hague.

The judicial findings of the Hague Tribunal are not definite and not all-encompassing. A large number of war crimes committed against the Bosniak population of the Srebrenica region — especially in a period between April 1992 and April 1993 — were never prosecuted by your office.

For example,

(a) the First Srebrenica Massacre (18 April–8 May 1992) — after the first fall of Srebrenica, Serb forces killed a total of 74 Bosniak women, children and elderly;

(b) the Sase detention camp (1992/93) — hundreds of Bosniak women, children and elderly were detained in this camp and subjected to rape and cruel treatment by Serb forces controlling this part of the war-time municipality; Read more of this post

In Memoriam: Judge Cassese (and Bosnian Genocide Case)

“Would it make any sense to ask Jewish victims to produce a document in which Nazi Germany explicitly ordered the Holocaust? Of course not. And yet, the International Court of Justice expected Bosnia to do the impossible — to produce a document in which Serbia explicitly ordered the Genocide. Does this make any sense?” – Daniel Toljaga

“Why was it not enough to prove that the Bosnian Serb military leadership was financed and paid by Serbia and that it was tightly connected to Serbia’s political and military leadership?” – Judge Antonio Cassese

Author: Daniel Toljaga

Distinguished Italian jurist, whose leadership of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) helped propel forward the Bosnian Genocide trials, died October 22nd at his home in Florence. Judge Antonio Cassese, 74, was the first president of the ICTY. He will be remembered as a man of utmost integrity and a man who spoke the truth. 

May he rest in peace. His leadership of the International Criminal Tribunal has ensured the accountability for the most serious violations of the international humanitarian law.

The Washington Post describes him as “a prolific academic writer and professor for several decades at the University of Florence, where he established a reputation as a top scholar of international law.” The same source notes that “In 1996, a New York Times reporter overheard him explode in frustration about Serbian leaders’ failure to cooperate with the tribunal and the message their intransigence sent to other dictators. ‘Go ahead! Kill, torture, maim! Commit acts of genocide!’ he shouted in a court hallway. ‘You may enjoy impunity!’

In 2007, Judge Cassese sharply criticized the controversial judgement of the International Court of Justice (ICJ) which pronounced that genocide had been committed at Srebrenica, but exonerated Serbia from direct responsibility for the annihilation of 8,000 Bosniak boys and men of this beleaguered, UN-protected, “safe haven” (holding, instead, that it ‘merely’ failed to prevent genocide).

The judicial standard of proof was unreasonable, to say the least. Would it make any sense to ask Jewish victims to produce a document in which Nazi Germany explicitly ordered the Holocaust? Of course not. And yet, the International Court of Justice expected Bosnia to do the impossible — to produce a document in which Serbia explicitly ordered the Genocide. Does this make any sense?

Protesting in the  Guardian on 27 February 2007 (the day after the ICJ pronounced its verdict), Judge Cassese argued that the judgment was seriously flawed, questioning its logic: Read more of this post

Masakr u Suhoj 1992: Jedan od Razloga za Napad Nasera Orića na Kravicu 1993

| ENGLISH |

Dana 10. maja 1992 — više od tri godine prije julskog genocida u Srebrenici, osam mjeseci prije Naser Orićevog kontra-napada na srpsko selo Kravica i u prvim danima rata na ovim prostorima — Srbi iz sela Kravice su uz pomoć Jugoslovenske narodne armije (JNA ) i lokalnih srpskih snaga učestvovali u masakru nad bošnjačkim civilima (ženama, djeci i starcima) u bošnjačkom selu Suha u obližnjoj opštini Bratunac, odmah do Srebrenice. Mlade žene i djevojke su seksualno zlostavljali, a potom su ubili 38 nenaoružanih bošnjačkih stanovnika. Njihova tijela su bacili u lokalnu masovnu grobnicu. Među 38 ekshumirana leša, bilo je devetoro djece u dobi od 3 mjeseca do 11 godina starosti, nekoliko žena, te stariji muškarci. Jedna od žrtava, Zekira Begić-Hrustanbašić, je bila u 9-mjesecu trudnoće.

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The 1992 Suha Massacre: One of Reasons Why Naser Orić Attacked Kravica in 1993

| BOSANSKI |

On 10 May 1992 — more than three years before the July 1995 Srebrenica genocide, eight months before Naser Orić’s counter-attack on the Serb village of Kravica and in the first days of the Bosnian war — Serbs from the village of Kravice, with the help of the Yugoslav Peoples Army (JNA) and other Serb forces in the region, participated in the massacre of Bosniak civilians in the Bosnian Muslim village of Suha in the municipality of Bratunac, adjacent to Srebrenica. They sexually tortured young women and girls and then killed 38 unarmed Bosniak residents. They dumped their bodies in a local mass grave. Among the 38 exhumed remains were those of nine children ranging in age from 3 months to 11 years, several women and mostly elderly men. One of the victims was the 9-months pregnant Zekira Begić-Hrustanbašić.

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